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                                2019-06-07 21:29:59新京報 記者:湯子帥
                                原創版權禁止商業轉載授權

                                世界海洋日|塑料海?去年中國海洋垃圾超七成為塑料

                                2019-06-07 21:29:59新京報 記者:湯子帥

                                6月8日,世界海洋日。為保護海洋生態環境,2009年始,第63屆聯合國大會將每年的這一天確定為“世界海洋日”,旨在呼吁人們保護海洋生態。

                                6月8日,世界海洋日。為保護海洋生態環境,2009年始,第63屆聯合國大會將每年的這一天確定為“世界海洋日”,旨在呼吁人們保護海洋生態。

                                 

                                而事實上,占地球面積71%,在整個地球物質循環和能量流動中有著不可取代作用的海洋,正慢慢被我們身邊那些未經妥善處理的垃圾“填充”,這些垃圾中超過四分之三為塑料。

                                 

                                那些進入海洋的塑料垃圾會就此消失了嗎?研究顯示,這些塑料在海洋中被打碎、分解,會變成直徑不超過5毫米的顆粒,再通過食物鏈、水等各種方式,再次出現在人類的生活中。

                                 

                                中國海洋垃圾數據:海灘區域最多

                                 

                                作為擁有較長海岸線的國家,中國的海洋環境也正受到海洋垃圾,特別是塑料垃圾和微塑料的威脅。

                                 

                                近日,國家生態環境部發布海洋環境狀況公報,2018年,相關部門對57個區域開展了海洋垃圾監測,監測內容包括海面漂浮垃圾、海灘垃圾和海底垃圾的種類和數量。

                                 

                                結果顯示,海洋垃圾密度較高的區域主要分布在旅游休閑娛樂區、港口航運及臨近海域。其中,尤其是人類活動密集的海灘區域,垃圾的平均個數和平均密度都高于其他區域。

                                 

                                不論是海面漂浮垃圾、海灘垃圾還是海底垃圾,塑料袋、塑料瓶等塑料類垃圾數量都是最多的,約占海洋垃圾的77.5%-88.7%。

                                 

                                 

                                除了肉眼看得到的塑料垃圾,年度監測報告還顯示,海洋中存在一些看不見的塑料“pm5.0”微粒。除了在工業生產中直接形成塑料微粒,塑料垃圾在海洋環境中逐步破碎為塑料碎片,這些碎片在環境中受長期的物理化學作用也會形成塑料微粒。

                                 

                                2018年,有關部門對渤海、黃海和南海海域開展了4個斷面的海面漂浮微塑料監測工作,監測區域表層水體微塑料的平均密度為0.42個/立方米,其中渤海、黃海和南海監測斷面海面漂浮微塑料平均密度分別為0.70、0.40和0.18個/立方米。

                                 

                                全球海洋得了“流行病”:塑料海

                                 

                                事實上,海洋塑料垃圾污染已是全球各地海洋的“流行病”。

                                 

                                2014年12月,美國五環流研究所(Five Gyres Institute)等研究人員,在2007年-2013年間,24次出航,利用拖網在5個亞熱帶“環流”、澳大利亞沿岸、孟加拉灣和地中海中打撈塑料垃圾,并通過數據模型估算,最終結果認為,全球海洋中至少漂浮著5.25萬億個塑料碎片,總質量約為26.9萬噸。

                                 

                                 

                                從此次研究的數據看,北半球海洋塑料垃圾的存量明顯高于南半球,從人口分布看,世界上大多數人口,特別是沿海人口,生活在北半球。

                                 

                                而北半球海洋垃圾最著名的例子就是“大太平洋垃圾帶”(GPGP)。1997年,帆船運動員與海洋學家查爾斯•摩爾在美國加州至夏威夷州的太平洋中,發現了這一垃圾帶。

                                 

                                荷蘭海洋清理基金會通過船只采樣和航拍等手段收集大量數據,并在數據基礎上建立模型后評估認為,這里的垃圾遠比此前估計的更多,而且塑料微粒正在此迅速積聚——從20世紀70年代的0.4 kg/km2到2015年的1.23 kg/km2,整個垃圾帶的面積達160萬平方千米,約等于4個云南省的面積。

                                 

                                 

                                大太平洋垃圾帶的形成有大洋環流的作用,而這樣的環流垃圾帶也不只是在太平洋上有。地球上幾個大型環流,北大西洋環流與南大西洋環流、印度洋環流等都有垃圾積聚。

                                 

                                以塑料為主的海洋垃圾可能比上述研究數據估計得還要多,因為一些垃圾已經沉入海底或更深的人類無法測量的深度。今年5月,一名美國人乘坐潛艇在太平洋馬里亞納海溝完成了人類有史以來最深(10927米)的一次潛水,但令人震驚的是,他在海底最深處竟然發現了人類制造的垃圾——塑料制品。

                                 

                                人類倒進海里的垃圾最后去了哪兒?

                                 

                                就像亞馬遜熱帶雨林的蝴蝶振翅會引起一場美國的颶風,這些人們日常隨手丟棄的塑料袋、塑料瓶......隨河流一路漂流到達海洋后,對海洋生物的生存造成了巨大影響。

                                 

                                2011年,澳大利亞南巴利納海灘一只死亡的綠海龜被沖上岸,在這只海龜的消化系統里發現了超過300個塑料碎片。

                                 

                                2017年2月,一頭柯氏喙鯨在挪威西海岸擱淺死亡,解剖發現它的腹中塞滿了大量塑料制品,包括至少30個塑料袋和其他小東西。

                                 

                                2018年6月,一頭巨頭鯨幼崽死在泰國南部海岸,尸檢時在其胃里發現有80個塑料袋,重達8公斤……網狀塑料可能纏繞動物身體,大塊塑料可能卡住消化道,微塑料可能附著有害物質進去體內,這樣的事情正在海洋中越來越多的生物身上發生。

                                 

                                根據聯合國《生物多樣性公約》秘書處2016年發布的報告顯示,自 2012 年以來,全球受到海洋垃圾影響的海洋生物種群數量已從 663 種增加到 817 種;其中有519種物種發現受到塑料垃圾纏繞或吸入體內影響,約 40%的鯨類動物和 44%的海鳥類物種的體內發現了微塑料的存在。

                                 

                                 

                                而這樣的影響很可能通過食物鏈最后回到人類自己身上。2018年,一位清華大學環境學院的研究者發表的論文中提到,2014-2016年,中國海域的海魚、海水制食用鹽和商業雙殼類動物都被檢測到有微塑料。

                                 

                                數據新聞編輯:湯子帥 實習生:王子薇

                                 

                                新媒體設計:許驍 校對:何燕、盧茜

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